Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control And Treatment; Another name for this is bird flu. It is caused by Type A influenza virus, and the virus is a natural habitat for wild aquatic birds globally. The virus can also infect domestic birds and other animal species. Avian influenza A can infect the respiratory tract and intestines of wild aquatic birds. However, the birds never get sick as a result of the infection. Some of the viruses can make the birds sick and cause the death of domesticated birds, like turkeys, ducks, and chickens.
|Heavy mortality in poultry|
Causes Of Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) In Poultry
• The condition is due to type A influenza virus
• The virus is resistant to chemical and physical factors. It can equally remain active for several days at low environmental temperature
• Fomites and direct contacts are the main routes of transmission
• The virus can also be present in feces and all secretions from the infected bird; the secretions and feces can contaminate poultry equipment or appliances and the environment.
• It affects the reproductive, urinary, digestive and respiratory organs if the causative organism is the mild type
• The birds will manifest symptoms, like diarrhea, softened eggshell, reduction in egg production, depression, anorexia, rales, sneezing, coughing.
• Cyanotic and swollen comb and wattle
• Hypersalivation and sero-mucous nasal discharge
• Petechial hemorrhage in the subcutaneous feet
• Almost all the organs in the bird are affected by the highly pathogenic influenza virus.
|1. haemorrhages in thigh muscle|
|2. Swollen and cyanotic face, wattle and comb|
|3. Swollen and subcutaneous haemorrhages in feet and shank|
• Petechial hemorrhage in the subcutaneous tissue of the feet
• Chest muscles and thigh also show hemorrhage
• Trachea shows hyperemia
• Internal organs show hemorrhage
Control And Prevention Of Avian influenza (Bird Flu) In Poultry
• Disease invasion of the farm can be prevented via strict biosecurity measures
• Death and clinical signs can be prevented with a vaccine. The vaccine can also reduce viral shedding from the GI and respiratory tracts
• The infected birds and their secretions should be disposed of properly. Afterwards, the poultry house should be disinfected properly using phenolic compounds, 4% sodium carbonate, 2% sodium hydroxide, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite
• Complete destruction of affected birds, litter materials, feed ingredients and eggs in deep pit and lime must be added before they are covered with earth.
• Movement of people and poultry equipment must be restricted during the outbreak in the farm.
Treatment Of Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) In Poultry
The only available methods for the treatment of Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) In Poultry are antibiotics, improve nutrition and good husbandry. Turkeys and chickens can be slaughtered to eradicate the infected ones.