Coccidiosis In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control And Treatment; Different types of animals suffer from Coccidiosis. Be that as it may, it only affects specific species of animals. This means your chickens may not be affected if your livestock gets affected by Coccidiosis. Be that as it may, this condition does not make any distinction among birds; it can affect geese, turkeys, and ducks, which can all pass the diseases to the chicken and vice versa.
The diseases can have a fatal effect on chickens. Be that as it may, diagnosing the coccidiosis in poultry at an earlier stage can put an end to any attendant problem.
Nature of disease
• It is among the most important of all protozoan diseases in poultry
• Birds between 3 and six weeks commonly experience outbreak
Causes Of Coccidiosis In Poultry
• It originates from seven members of the Eimeria genus
• No of the seven species have any cross-immunity
• The most harmful of the seven species are E. necatrix, E.tenella and E. brunettiare. They cause high mortality and high morbidity.
• The lower part of the small intestine is affected by E. brunette; E. necatrix affects middle portion, while E. tenella affects the caeca.
• E. acervulina and E. maxima only have mild harmful effects. E. acervulina affects the upper intestine mainly, while E. maxima affect the middle part of the small intestine.
• Reduction in egg product in laying birds
• The birds look dehydrated with ruffled feathers and drooping wings
• They may have bloody or watery diarrhea and may also huddle together
• Birds affected can contain bloody mucus, fluid, and blood
• The birds look anemic and emaciated
|1. Distended small intestine filled with fluids & clotted blood|
|2. Distended small intestine filled with fluids & clotted blood|
• There is enlargement of the caeca with clotted blood
• There are thickening and swelling of the intestinal mucosa
• The small intestinal lining contains tiny hemorrhage
• Lumen of the intestine is filled with blood
Control and prevention
• It is difficult to treat, but easier to prevent
• Vaccine is available for layer and breeder replacements and control can be carried out using drugs mainly
• Two types of vaccines are available for developing immunity against Coccidiosis.
• Vaccination of birds take place between the ages of five and nine days via drinking water
• Shuttle program talks about the use of anticoccidial in grower feed and starter
• Drug resistance can be reduced by the use of shuttle programme
• The occurrence can be prevented if droppings are not allowed to contaminate feeds. It can also be prevented by carrying out biosecurity and good hygiene
• The litter should be ranked and dried at an interval to prevent oocysts sporulation and reduce infection chances.
Treatment Of Coccidiosis In Poultry
The birds should be kept in good health at all times. Some people believe that the condition can be treated by the beneficial microbes in probiotics, apple cider vinegar, yogurt and raw milk. But research shows that these beneficial microbes cannot prevent the disease since Coccidiosis never competes with any of them in the gut. Be that as it may, the impact of the diseases can be reduced by anything that can improve the overall health of the gut. Probiotics can improve nutrients in the birds and improve their health status.
The drugs are useful for two main purposes, which are:
• Illness treatment
• Illness prevention
Rescue treatment can be done using a drug like amprolium especially in an outbreak, even though many prefer management for the control of Coccidiosis. The birds can be treated instead of destroying them. Due to a high density of the birds in a large poultry, it is better to use the vaccines or drugs routinely.
• Sulfa drugs: It was discovered in the 1930s for preventing Coccidiosis. It is also the first drug that could prevent the diseases. Additionally, it has antibacterial properties.
• Amprolium:It is also used as an anticoccidial drug and has been thus used for several years now. It can be added to drinking water
• Quinolones:They act as coccidiostats since they can arrest the coccidian in an early developmental stage. Decoquinate is a good example of this type of drug, and it is used for prevention.
• Ionophores:They are used as anticoccidials in large-scale industry. They can attack the cell membrane and prevent secondary disease in the gut. Additionally, they have antibacterial properties.
• Other drugs: examples are Cycostat and Cycarb.