Infectious bronchitis (IB) In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control And Treatment
Infectious bronchitis (IB) In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control And Treatment; This condition is highly contagious and acute. It equally has a major economic importance in commercial bird chicken flocks. It has a global distribution. Certain respiratory signs are associated with the condition.  Also, layers and breeders can show poor egg quality and reduced egg production. Some of the organisms responsible for infectious bronchitis have nephrogenic properties, thereby leading to interstitial nephritis. One of such organisms is infectious bronchitis virus (IBV).  This usually occurs in chicks. Additionally, the condition is reported to have an association with proventriculitis and myopathy.

Infectious bronchitis (IB) In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control And Treatment

Nature of the disease

•    The infection causes respiratory disease, and it is highly contagious and infectious.  It occurs in chicks.  Also, it can affect oviduct. Some strains have been reported to cause kidney disease.
•    Infectious bronchitis (IB) in poultry can come up at virtually any stage of chicken development. Be that as it may, the most susceptible are those chicks less than six weeks of age.
•    It hurts egg quality and rate of production. It equally affects the production of breeders; these are all great economic importance
•    The severity of this condition can be increased when some other microorganisms are involved; examples of such microorganisms are E. coli and Mycoplasma.      
 

 

 

Causes Of Infectious bronchitis (IB) In Poultry

•    The causative organisms, a virus, is part of the corona group of virus
•    The virus responsible for the condition is fragile and can be destroyed by chemical and physical agents.
•    Infection can occur via direct contact with contaminated personnel, clothing, and movable equipment.  It can also be contacted by direct contact with infected birds, as well as ingestion of contaminated water and feed. Also, inhalation of the droplets can lead to infection.
•    The virus can be found in the eggshells of birds infected by the virus. It can also be found in the faeces and respiratory discharges of these birds.
•    The virus can remain active in winter outside the human body. As a result, it can spread more during winter compared to other seasons; this does not mean the disease cannot occur at virtually any other season of the year. 
•    It can spread very fast and wide among the flock once one of them is infected.
•    The birds can transmit the infection among themselves        
•    The disease can be transmitted by fomites also.

 

Infectious bronchitis (IB) In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control And Treatment
Misshapen egg with ridges
Infectious bronchitis (IB) In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control And Treatment
Watery albumin of egg
 
 

Clinical symptoms

•    Symptoms like nasal discharge, lachrymation, tracheal rales, gasping, coughing, and sneezing are common in young chicks as from 0 to 6 weeks old.
•    You will find the chicks huddling under the hover
•    The faces and sinuses may show sign of swelling
•    The rate of mortality can be as high as 60% in chicks.  The disease can have up to two weeks course.
•    Healthy birds are normally quiet during the night, but birds infected by this organism will produce distinct respiratory noise.
•    Negligible mortality, lower occurrence of nasal discharge and less intensity of the symptoms are noticed in adult birds and growers.
•    There is rapid decline in egg production as high as 50% at times in laying birds
•    Adults commonly experience damage to their functional oviduct
•    The eggs record several abnormalities, like leathery, corrugated, smaller, rough, shelled, soft, or thin eggs.
•    The albumin appears watery white and thin; egg quality is poor generally
•    The birds can show increased mortality, increased water intake, wet droppings, ruffled feathers and depression in uraemic form.  The mortality can be as high as 1% per week, and it is usually due to urolithiasis or kidney stone.  

 

Gross lesions

•    There is no sign of hemorrhage in the lesion; it can appear caseous, catarrhal or serous. The lesion usually shows in places like the bronchi lumen and trachea.
•    It shows plugs of caseous materials yellow. The material obstructs the lower parts of the trachea and the bronchi of the chicks that die.    
•    The abdominal can contain fluid yolk material
•    The follicle appears misshapen, and the ovary looks abnormal
•    There is a sign of atrophy in the middle third of the oviduct. The ovum is ruptured, and its content is released into the abdominal cavity.   
•    The kidney looks pale and swollen. Urates are also deposited in the ureters, kidneys and all through the body.
 

 

Control and prevention

•    The disease can be prevented by vaccination and by following very strict hygienic management procedures
The vaccination schedule recommended in the table below is best for layers:
Age in days
Name of the vaccine
Route
5-7
IB Live
I/O
28-30
IB Live
I/O
80
IB Live
D/W
112-114
IB Killed
S/C
280
IB Killed
S/C

 

Treatment Of Infectious bronchitis (IB) In Poultry

 

There is no available specific treatment method. However, you can use antibiotics for preventing secondary infections. You can give 1 gm/liter of sodium salicylate where permitted. Secondary colibacillosis can be controlled using antibiotics.
 
      
 

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