New Castle Disease In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control  & Treatment
New Castle Disease In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control  & Treatment/ Ranikhet Disease (RD); The disease is a contagious one, and it is caused by a virus. It has also been found in many wild and domestic birds. Some of them are domestic parrots, pigeons, turkeys, and fowl; these are most affected among birds.  Other birds, like guinea fowl, quail, pheasants, geese and duck experience a mild form of Newcastle disease infection.  Some of the symptoms associated with this condition are long-term nervous signs, like a twisted neck, collapse, profuse diarrhea, increase in respiration, reduction in egg production, severe depression, several respiratory diseases, several nervous clinical signs, respiratory problems and digestive problems. The bird may die at the end of the day; there are, however, instances where the birds survive. Birds that survive usually end up with long-term nervous signs. High fatality occurs in bird population if the disease is severe.

New Castle Disease In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control  & Treatment

 

Disease infection nature (New Castle Disease In Poultry)

New Castle Disease In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control & Treatment
Diarrhoea
New Castle Disease In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control & Treatment
Depression
New Castle Disease In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control & Treatment
Mortality
 
•    The disease is an acute viral disease that is accompanied by conditions, like reduction in egg production, respiratory problems and 100% mortality at times.
•    The virus can infect humans due to its zoonotic property.  When infected, it can cause death in human.

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Causes Of New Castle Disease In Poultry

The various virus strains responsible for this condition are highlighted below:
•    Paramyxovirus type 1. It belongs to the Avulavirus genus. The family name is paramyxoviridae.
•    Disease infection is categorized into giving pathotypes consequent of the form of disease it produces in chicken. These classes are Mesogenic (moderate pathogenic), neurotropic velogenic, Viscerotropic velogenic (most pathogenic), asymptomatic and Lentogenic (low pathogenic).
•    Various chemical and physical compounds can destroy the virus. Examples of the chemical compounds are ethanol, formalin, potassium permanganate, etc. examples of the physical compounds are pH effects, irradiation, heat, etc.
•    The virus can be killed via fumigation of incubators and buildings     
•    The primary source of infection is infected chicken
•    The virus can be released during clinical stage and incubation, as well as during the convalescence stage, which represents the least source of virus release.
•    Eggs that are laid by infected chicken during their clinical stage can contain the virus, as well as the carcass of the chicken during the acute virulent infection   
•    When infected, the bird can release the virus via feces, respiratory discharges, exhaled air and the likes. The virus can then contaminate water and feed.
•    Birds can get infected via ingestion or inhalation of any contaminated material
•    Factors that can promote the spread of infection are poultry product, poultry equipment, movement of people, wild and pet birds.
•    The virus can continue to live for several days on human respiratory tract mucous membrane. The virus has also been isolated from the sputum produced by humans.


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Clinical Symptoms Of New Castle Disease In Poultry

New Castle Disease In Poultry: Signs, Causes, Control & Treatment
Cyanosis of comb
 
The symptoms are highlighted below        
•    Reduction in egg production
•    Diarrhoea
•    Facial edema
•    Cyanosis of comb
•    Legs and wings paralysis, as well as neck twisting
•    Sudden death
 

Gross Lesions Of New Castle Disease In Poultry

•    Mucus exudation and congestion in the respiratory tract, especially the trachea
•    Petechial hemorrhage in proventriculus
•    Intestinal hemorrhage


Control And Prevention Of New Castle Disease In Poultry

•    An integrated approach of strict biosecurity, proper management and vaccination can be used in preventing the disease effectively.
•    The use of live viral vaccines is also effective. The vaccine is useful in the mesogenic and lentogenic strains; it can promote good immune response.  Examples of mesogenic strains are Mukteshwar, R2B and H. Examples of lentogenic strains are B1, F, LaSota.
•    It is important to vaccinate a healthy chicken within the first four days of life.
•    The primary vaccination of birds is best done via salsa or ocular administration of the vaccine for lentogenic strains.
•    The intramuscular or subcutaneous route is followed for vaccine application to treat the mesogenic strains and this must be applied between six to eight weeks of age. It is to be given as a secondary vaccine, and it provides better protection for a very long period.
•    In endemic areas, the vaccine is made of a killed virus with oil adjuvant. It is also given subcutaneously and intramuscularly for maintaining prolonged and high titer for antibody in breeders and layers. The vaccine also increases maternal antibodies in the vaccinated chicks.
•    Potassium permanganate (1: 1000), Lysol (1: 5,000) or sodium hydroxide (2%) should be used in disinfecting the equipment and premises of the farm; they can be used to prevent the diseases.              
The recommended vaccination schedule for layers is given in the table below:
Age in days
Name of the vaccine
Route
5
F/B
I/o (or) I/n
27
LaSota
water
52
LaSota
Water
64
R2B
I/m
112
LaSota
water
280
LaSota
water
 

New Castle Disease In Poultry Treatment

Newcastle Diseases has no treatment for now. Be that as it may, antibiotics can be used in controlling the secondary infections associated with it. The virus can stay alive for up to two months in manure, and it can remain alive for up to 12 months in carcasses. However, you can kill it using direct sunlight, fumigants, and disinfectants.

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